Joint pain: Causes,symptoms and treatment by doctor

Joint pain: Causes,symptoms and treatment by doctor

Table of Contents

Joint pain in older adults

Joint paint in older adults are the most common complaints. There are most common causes of joint pain and adults more than 50 years are most commonly affected. There are two most common type of arthritis –
1.osteoarthritis
2.rheumatoid arthritis

Osteoarthritis-osteoarthritis is defined as non- inflammatory degenerative joint disease. Cartilage is present between joint which is Rubbery substance between the bones of the joint act as a cushion which helps in shock absorption, there are wear and tear of joint cartilage in osteoarthritis. generally involve large joints such as knee,hip,shoulder,etc. females are more prone to osteoarthritis.
Female:male ratio- 2:1
Osteoarthritis-as I described what is osteoarthritis now I will tell you what is most common cause, risk factors and measures taken to prevent OA or treatment for that. But before that I let you know the classification of osteoarthritis-

1.primary osteoarthritis -in primary OA cause is not known example-aging ,genetic.

2.secondary osteoarthritis -in secondary OA cause is known,example-trauma ,obesity, any disease.

Osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritis-

Osteoarthritis is non- inflammatory degenerative joint disease involving hands, feet ,spine and more commonly weight bearing joint like knee and hip while rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory , systemic, polyarthritis(involvement of multiple joints),nodule forming degenerative joint disease.it involves small joints of hands and legs.
Rheumatoid arthritis is most commonly occur above 40 year and females are more prone rheumatoid arthritis.
Female: male ratio-3:1

Osteoarthritis is more common in older age above 50 years and women are more prone to osteoarthritis.

Causes-aging, trauma, hereditary or any disease which are affecting joints(more commonly large joints).

Common features or symptoms and sign of osteoarthritis-

symptoms

• Pain
• Tenderness
• Swelling
• Crepitus(creaking sound during movement)
• Decrease range of motion(limitation of movement)
• Stiffness
• Other symptoms like joint deformity like bow legs, knock knees, muscle weakness.
Sign –
• Decrease space between joints
• Osteophyte formation(extra bone formation at joint surface.
• Cartilage destruction
Note – according to joint involve there is sign and symptoms will occur. for example, for spine there is back pain, muscle weakness , decreased activity at the site involved.
Risk factors:-
1.old age
2.post menopausal age
3. trauma
4.nutritional deficiency
4.fractures
5.smoking and alcohol
6.sydentry lifestyle
7.obesity,etc.
Now come to the investigation part which helps in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis .most commonly following investigations are done.
As OA is a slowly developing disease initially it is difficult to diagnose without any incident or injury. After any injury or incident, an x-ray may show the features of OA. And there are grades of OA is decided by x-ray in which bony spur and joint narrowing along with cartilage destruction are seen.
In addition to x-ray, the doctor may use MRI(magnetic resonance imaging)-for diagnosing in which magnetic field and radio waves are used for seeing a clear image of soft tissue and bone.
Another investigation is done by the blood test to rule out other condition such as infection, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Now I will come to the treatment aspect in OA patient
Medical treatment -in which analgesics are used for pain relief, and according to symptoms patient should be treated.
NSAIDs(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)-Diclofenac, paracetamol
Corticosteroids -prednisolone
Your doctor can refer to a physical therapist because osteoarthritis cannot be cured fully it can be prevented once it starts developing in our body.
Physical therapy –
1.Use of hot and cold packs for pain prevention.
2.Exercise-related to movement
3. The tightness of the muscle can be prevented by soft tissue release (massage technique)
4.strengthen the week muscle by exercise
5.taping technique is used to stabilize the joint.
6.walking aids such as canes and walker are used as support
7.braces are used to prevent over movements which may reduce friction between the joints.
8.proper nutritional diet is necessary.
Ergonomics advise for home given by a doctor or physiotherapist-
• Prevent longer duration of standing or sitting
• Don’t sit with a folded knee
• Use western toilet
• Prevent stair climbing
• Use of supporting devices
• A nutritional diet is necessary.

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