Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment

Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment

Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment (DO your

CHILD IS FACING ANY OF THESE difficulties??)

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Dr. Jagriti Rani Tiwari

Dr. Jagriti rani tiwari is a great and experienced doctor serving more than 100 patient daily. She also write great science based article on medical field

Hello everyone and most importantly hello parents and family members who are reading my article hope you all are doing good. This topic Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment are all about the difficulty of child activities or the inability of a child in doing any activities.
So here, I am talking about most commons problem facing by children that is difficulty in neck holding, crawling, sitting, standing, walking. Generally, in medical terms we call it as delayed milestones and also it is said that these children may suffer from a neurological disorder of the brain (cerebrum) that is known as cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is a non -progressive neurological disease in which baby may get affected before, during and after pregnancy due to trauma, any type of disease(details are given below about the causes of cerebral palsy). There is so many disorder in which delayed milestone is there which included muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy etc. In this neurological disorder, the child may also have difficulty in speech, hearing or vision. In some cases, you may find mental retardation. I will discuss the introduction, types, clinical feature(sign and symptoms).

Cerebral palsy is of different types according to the involvement of body parts-

TYPES OF Cerebral palsy – Cerebral palsy: Symptoms,types,Causes and Treatment)

Spastic diplegic -TYPES OF Cerebral palsy

In this type symmetrical part of the body is involved for example both legs is affected. The tone of the muscle is increased. the increased tone may cause a decrease in the movement that is restricted movement or inability to do any activity or late activities are seen.

Choreoathetoid cerebral palsy-TYPES OF Cerebral palsy

in this type irregular contraction, twisting and writhing of hand and leg occur.it also may say the irregular movement of hand and leg can be seen in activities of the child. difficulty in walking and balance is affected, gripping is affected, writing is affected, activities of hand is affected.

Spastic hemiplegia-TYPES OF Cerebral palsy

one side of hand and leg is affected either it may be paralysis or paresis(weakness of muscle), the tone of the muscle is increased .tightness of muscle and tendon(which attaches muscle to bone), standing, walking difficulty may be seen. Movement is affected and difficulty in initiating any movement. Back and abdominal muscle is also weak.

Hypotonic cerebral palsy-TYPES OF Cerebral palsy

in this tone is diminished, floppy muscle is seen in this case. The patient can not able to initiate movement or child can not able to hold any position during movement.

Ataxic cerebral palsy –TYPES OF Cerebral palsy

movement, coordination and balance is disturbed . in this shaky arms and legs and also difficulty in speech and swallowing may be seen. In ataxic cerebral palsy Sitting, standing, walking balance is affected. Movement of hand and leg is also affected.

Now, these were types of cerebral palsy, so now I will tell u about most common causes of cerebral palsy, this will be divided according to before birth(prenatal), during birth(antenatal) and after birth(postnatal):-

Causes of cerebral palsy – Cerebral palsy: Symptoms,types,Causes and Treatment

Prenatal (before birth)- starting from day 1 of pregnancy till 9 month
• Viral infection
• Radiation exposure
• Any harmful drug is taken by mother
• Genetic abnormalities (family history)
• Twin pregnancies
Antenatal (during birth)- duration from labor pain till delivery of child
• Hypertension
• Trauma
• Forceps injury (an instrument used during surgery causes injury)
• Respiratory disorder of Prematurity ( breathing difficulty due to premature birth)
• Hypoxia (absence of oxygen or decrease oxygen level in the body )
Postnatal(after delivery)- after birth if anything happens to a child which includes any kind of injury or following below
• Traumatic head injury
• Hypoxia
• Clot in brain
• Viral and bacterial infection of the brain(meningitis)
## So these were causes now we will see what are the most common thing that features to identify whether it is cerebral palsy or not.we will see sign and symptoms of cerebral palsy-
Muscular – there is the weakness in muscle due to that there is difficulty in walking, along with that difficult bodily movement, muscle tightness followed by permanent muscle shortening, paralysis of body either diplegia or hemiplegia, overactivity of reflexes that are exaggerated reflexes, stiffness in muscle, involuntary movement.

Developmental – inability in following activities like neck control, crawling, lying to sitting, sit to stand, walking.
Speech is affected sometimes the child may not able to understand what parents or other people are saying.
Other symptoms in which eyesight is affected, the deformity may arise, hearing loss, difficulty in swallowing and drooling, leaking of urine, tremors, seizers, and gait is also affected.
previously I discussed types, causes, and clinical features. So now I will discuss diagnosis, treatment along with my personal experience about cerebral palsy which I get in pediatric opd.
Gross motor function classification system is the system which looks at movements sitting, standing, walking, and use of mobility devices used to check in the cerebral palsy patient. It is divided into levels into levels –
Level 1- walks without limitations
Level 2- walks with limitations
Level 3- walks using a hand-held mobility device
Level 4- self- mobility with limitations, may use powered mobility
Level 5 -transported in a manual chair, self -mobility is severely affected

DIAGNOSIS of Cerebral palsy – Cerebral palsy: Symptoms,types,Cause and Treatment

Basically, diagnosis is based on what parents or family members are giving information about the child’s delayed activities.
Your doctor will ask for Before, during and after pregnancy history.
Along with that MRI scan of the brain is an important part of the diagnosis.
Blood examination.
Electroencephalogram of the brain.

This is diagnosis part for Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment

TREATMENT of cerebral palsy- Cerebral palsy: Symptoms,types,Cause and Treatment

Now I am going to talk about medical, surgical as well as physical therapy treatment along with my own experience in pediatric opd. Basically, when I see a patient we need to work on main problems what the patient is facing.
Basically, treatment include following –
1. medical treatment
2. surgical treatment
3. assistive device or supporting device
4. physical therapy
5. occupational therapy
6. speech therapy
7. psychological counseling

1.Medical treatment FOR Cerebral palsy (Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment)

Drugs – diazepam, baclofen, dantrolene generally used for reducing spasticity.
(*) phenol nerve block

2. Surgical treatment- (Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment)

Surgery generally requires if there are any contracture forms in muscles that there is no change in the muscle structure it forms fully stiff.
Neurectomy may be required to control severe muscle spasm along with optimal rehabilitation.
Rhizotomy

3. Physiotherapy –(Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment)

In physical therapy therapist used to set the goal according to the patient condition and problem which is informed by the mother or any family member.
The condition can be treated and prevented by physical therapy treatment
Physical therapist used to work on –
What kind of activities the patient can not able to do
Work on movement
Balance and training
Increases physical activities
To maintain or increase strength
Reducing the tight structure
Gait and posture maintenance.

This is treatment part for Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment

These are the things you needed to know about Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, types, Causes, and Treatment

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